Dear Reader! Continuing the previus theme, we can say about the action risk related to the greenhouse gases human activities started from 1988, when The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was created. It is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. Its mission : “the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. It does not carry out new research nor does it monitor climate-related data. It bases its assessment mainly on published and peer reviewed scientific technical literature.” This task adressess of a considerable number of climate, metteorology, hydrometeorology, biology annd related sciences areas Researchers, those that gather to discuss the scientific evidences and models results, to the objective of a goal of reaching a consensus on the latest trends in climate change. In 1990, IPCC published The First Assessment Report (FAR). Confirming the existent scientific knowledge concern, IPCC concluded : ” continued greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere would lead to anthropic climate change, whose pace and magnitude would likely have major effects on natural and human systems“. Given effects that human activities, specially to the gases artificial emission and production were globally changing environment, ONU’s General committee emited a Resolution to the environment change to the future generation and mandate to negociate an International meeting to the Climate Change, that implied in the Intergovernment Negociating Committee, to discuss a panel to the Climate Change.
In May 1992, the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee finalized the relatory, approving the final draft of the Framework-Convention, which was placed to international membership at the Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, established the basis for international cooperation on technical issues and policies related to global warming. Fundamentally the Convention seeks to protect what it calls a “climate system”, which means the entire atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere and their interactions.
The climate system is a matter of concern to the extent because of climate change, which means a change in weather patterns that can be attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is add to that caused by the natural variability to the climate observed over comparable time periods.
The convention is based in two basic principles : Care and shared responsability, but in a different manner. The “Care” principle reffers to the fact that lack of full not scientific certainty can’t be used to a reason to the countries to postpone adoption measures to prevent, avoid or minimize the cause to climate change and mitigate its negative effects.
“Common but differentiated responsability” principle considers that exists a worldwide common responsability, because every country contributes to the global climate change and all are going to be affected by its consequence. And so differentiated, because some countries are more responsible for the global warming, in case of they contribute more to the problem due to their hystoric and updated emissions, and why they have more possibilites to face the problem, as their economic and technology capacities. The Convention’s final objective and all of efforts done is to reach grenhouse gases concentration stabilization in the atmosphere, in a level that prevent its antropic interference – action human results – danger to the climate system, under three especific conditions:
- this level will be obtained in a suficient time that permits to the ecosystems naturally adopt to the climate change;
- In those planed actions , it is assured no threat to food production;
- To enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
The common goal is to have a future where development will be based on less intensive carbon polution , in a sustainability criteria.Marco Alegre