BRAZILIAN CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM

 

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BRAZILIAN CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM

Assimetry to the Brazilian national adoption to restraint the Greenhouse Gases emissions from different countries reflects the various levels of compromise to a mitigation global goal to the climate change. On one side, there are developed countries that made a compromise with Greenhouse Emission Gases obligatory targets and developed mechanisms to obtain them.   On the other side, there are countries in development, like Brazil, those who assumed common voluntary targets obligations or programatics to adopt emissions reduced and are developping e improving their institutional and policy framework .to obtain them. Brazil is the worldwide eight economy when it is considered the purchasing power(PPC) criteria  ; and it is the seventh when it is considered nominal cambial taxe. Despite the low value of the per capita income of these countries, its specific weight is high in international trade,  with a great space to the economical grouth.  The Brazilian position held in the worldwide economyand its territory dimension corroborates the potencial growing of Brazilian economy, also the GHG gases emissions. Nonetheless, natural resources abundance also appoints to the possibility to find a different way trend to development, keeping the current profile of low carbon PIB emission to energetics goals. Brazil has one GHG emission proflie rather peculiar. In accordance with Second National GHG Inventory use of land, land use change and forests – were the emission main source in the country in 2005. More than 80% of the total emission resulting from use of land, land use change and forests in the same year, in wich the land use change and deforestation represented 61% e the land use change, 19%.  In the sequence, the major issuing was energy comsunption (15%), followed by industrial processes(3%) and residuals(2%). There were also estimated the GHG emission from indirected GHG, as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other no metane volatile organic composites.  Although Brazilian deforesting rates were recently reduced, this practice stills to be the most important source of GHG source of emission in the country. Agriculture and cattle raising represents an important source of GHG emissions, mainly due to the use of fertilizanted,  form rice irrigated cultures, from the burning the sugar cane before the harvest and  the enteric cattle fermentation. Instead of the majority of the countries, the energetic Brazilian matrix is based especially in renewable sources, those responsible for 45% off the primary energy consumed in 2010.This characteristic have been manteined in a stablished relation lasting last 3 decades, oscilating within 40% and 50%. Within the renewable sources utilized in Brazil we can stand-out Sugar Cane (18%) and Hydraulic energy (14%). As for energy consumption contribution to climate change in Brazil, the impact generate by the national energetic matrix over climate resulted in a GHG intensity emissions per primary energy unit comsunption in order of 1,8 ton of CO²/Petroleum ton equivalent (tep) in 2010. This is a low value when it is compared ti the worldwide media of 2.8 ton CO²/tep.  As a comparison, there are other countries intensities: China (3,4 ton CO²/tep); Índia (3,3 ton CO²/tep); EUA (2,7 tone CO²/tep), Germany (2,6 ton CO2/tep), Japan (2,6 ton CO²/tep) and Rússia (2,5 CO²/tep).However , although it is in a relatively comfortable position on the energy matrix, Brasil is passing trought a future energetic comsuption dilema. there is a necessity to increase the comsunption energy per capita to develop the economical grouth and universalize energy access to all social classes.

However, due to the proximity of the usable hydropower potential exhaustion, it is probable that the expansion of the Energy National System takes Brazil to a more intensive energetic matrix based on carbon.

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